This paper describes a modified Roebuck compression device as a potential compression device of a rotating cryogenic refrigeration system in superconducting machine such as generator or motor. The conventional cryogen transfer method from stationary refrigeration system to rotating system can be eliminated by an on-board cryogenic refrigeration system that utilizes well-designed multi-stage modified Roebuck compression device. This paper shows basic thermodynamic analysis of modified Roebuck compression device and its application for compressing neon at 77 K with substantial pressure ratio when the rotor diameter is 0.8 m with rotating speed of 3600 rpm. The device does not require any moving part in rotating frame, but two separate thermal reservoirs to convert thermal energy into mechanical compression work. The high temperature thermal reservoir is atmospheric environment at 300 K and the low temperature thermal reservoir is assumed as a liquid nitrogen bath at 77 K. The concept of the compression device in this paper demonstrates its usefulness of generating high-pressure neon at 77 K for rotating J-T neon refrigeration cycle of superconducting rotor.