The emergence and growth of transformation optics over the past decade has revitalized interest in how a gradient refractive index (GRIN) can be used to control light propagation. Two-dimensional demonstrations with lithographically defined silicon (Si) have displayed the power of GRIN optics and also represent a promising opportunity for integrating compact optical elements within Si photonic integrated circuits. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of three-dimensional Si-based GRIN micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous Si (PSi). Conventional microfabrication creates Si square microcolumns (SMCs) that can be electrochemically etched into PSi elements with nanoscale porosity along the shape-defined etching pathway, which imparts the geometry with structural birefringence. Free-space characterization of the transmitted intensity distribution through a homogeneously etched PSi SMC exhibits polarization splitting behavior resembling that of dielectric metasurfaces that require considerably more laborious fabrication. Coupled birefringence/GRIN effects are studied by way of PSi SMCs etched with a linear (increasing from edge to center) GRIN profile. The transmitted intensity distribution shows polarization-selective focusing behavior with one polarization focused to a diffraction-limited spot and the orthogonal polarization focused into two laterally displaced foci. Optical thickness-based analysis readily predicts the experimentally observed phenomena, which strongly match finite-element electromagnetic simulations.