A new 1,8-naphthalimide-based fluorescent probe for the detection of diethyl cyanophosphonate, a very common nerve agent simulant, is designed, synthesized, and characterized fully. The probe shows around 50-fold enhancement of fluorescence intensity over other nerve agent simulants. Importantly, the probe is able to work under aqueous conditions in a wide pH range. Two reactive groups, the oxime and the phenol, allow a dual emission with different kinetic reactions. The reaction of diethyl cyanophosphonate with the oxime group occurs in advance; the resulting time response of the fluorescence enhancement is observed within approximately 30 s. After the oxime reaction, then phenol also undergoes a substitution reaction with diethyl cyanophosphonate, resulting in a blue emission. The real application of this new probe is demonstrated through the use of silica plate assays for the detection of diethyl cyanophosphonate in both gas and liquid phases through dual emission channels.