Ground-based augmentations of the global positioning system demand guaranteed integrity to support aircraft precision approach and landing navigation. To quantitatively evaluate navigation integrity, an aircraft computes vertical and lateral protection levels as position-error bounds using the standard deviation of ionosphere spatial decorrelation. Thus, it is necessary to estimate typical ionospheric gradients for nominal days and to determine an appropriate upper bound to sufficiently cover the differential error due to the ionosphere spatial decorrelation. Both station-pair and time-step methods are used to assess the standard deviation of vertical (or zenith) ionospheric gradients (sigma(vig)). The station-pair method compares the simultaneous zenith delays from two different reference stations to a single satellite and observes the difference in delay across the known ionosphere pierce point separation. Because these ionosphere pierce point separations limit the observability of the station-pair method, the time-step method is also used to better understand ionospheric gradients at short distance scales (10-40 km). The time-step method compares the ionospheric delay of a single line of sight at one epoch with the delay for the same line of sight at another epoch a short time (a few to tens of minutes) later. This method has the advantage of removing interfrequency bias calibration errors on different satellites and receivers while possibly introducing an estimation error due to temporal ionospheric gradients. The results of this study demonstrate that typical values of sigma(vig) are on the order of 1-3 mm/,km for nonstormy ionospheric conditions. As a result, sigma(vig) of 4 mm/ k m is conservative enough to bound ionosphere spatial decorrelation for nominal days and still leave enough margin for more active days and for non-Gaussian tail behavior.