Differentiation of multipotent stem cells occurs through the highly coordinated control of gene expression. Repressor element 1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor (REST), a master transcriptional regulator in neuronal stem cells, restricts neuronal gene expression. REST activity is context-dependent and is modified by its cofactors, such as Ctdsp2. In this issue of Genes Development, Dill and colleagues (pp. 25-30) report on the microRNA-mediated regulation of neural differentiation. Interestingly, this microRNA is post-transcriptionally regulated and modulates expression of its host gene, ctdsp2.