Recombinant Escherichia coli XL1-Blue harboring a high-copy-number plasmid containing the Alcaligenes eutrophus polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis genes could efficiently synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) in a complex medium containing yeast extract and tryptone but not in a defined medium. One of the reasons for the reduced PHB production in a defined medium was thought to be severe filamentation of cells in this medium. By overexpressing an essential cell division protein, FtsZ, in recombinant E. coli producing PHB, filamentation could be suppressed and PHB could be efficiently produced in a defined medium. A high PHB concentration of 149 g/liter, with high productivity of 3.4 g of PHB/liter/h, could be obtained by the pH-stat fed-batch culture of the filamentation-suppressed recombinant E. coli in a defined medium. It was also found that insufficient oxygen supply at a dissolved oxygen concentration (DOC) of 1 to 3% of air saturation during active PHB synthesis phase did not negatively affect PHB production. By growing cells to the concentration of 110 g/liter and then controlling the DOC in the range of 1 to 3% of air saturation, a PHB concentration of 157 g/liter and PHB productivity of 3.2 g of PHB/liter/h were obtained. For the scale-up studies, fed-batch culture was carried out in a 50-liter stirred tank fermenter, in which the DOC decreased to zero when cell concentration reached 50 g/liter. However, a relatively high PHB concentration of 101 g/liter and PHB productivity of 2.8 g of PHB/liter/h could still be obtained, which demonstrated the possibility of industrial production of PHB in a defined medium by employing the filamentation-suppressed recombinant E. coli.