The effect of multivalent cations and Tau on paclitaxel-stabilized microtubule assembly, disassembly, and structure

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In this review we describe recent studies directed at understanding the formation of novel nanoscale assemblies in biological materials systems. In particular, we focus on the effects of multivalent cations, and separately, of microtubule-associated protein (MAP) Tau, on microtubule (MT) ordering (bundling), MT disassembly, and MT structure. Counter-ion directed bundling of paclitaxel-stabilized MTs is a model electrostatic system, which parallels efforts to understand MT bundling by intrinsically disordered proteins (typically biological polyampholytes) expressed in neurons. We describe, studies, which reveal an unexpected transition from tightly spaced MT bundles to loose bundles consisting of strings of MTs as the valence of the cationic counter-ion decreases from Z = 3 to Z = 2. This transition is not predicted by any current theories of polyelectrolytes. Notably, studies of a larger series of divalent counter-ions reveal strong ion specific effects. Divalent counter-ions may either bundle or depolymerize paclitaxel-stabilized MTs. The ion concentration required for depolymerization decreases with increasing atomic number. In a more biologically related system we review synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) studies on the effect of the Tau on the structure of paclitaxel-stabilized MTs. The electrostatic binding of MAP Tau isoforms leads to an increase in the average radius of microtubules with increasing Tau coverage (i.e. a re-distribution of protofilament numbers in MTs). Finally, inspired by MTs as model nanotubes, we briefly describe other more robust lipid-based cylindrical nanostructures, which may have technological applications, for example, in drug encapsulation and delivery. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Publisher
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Issue Date
2016-06
Language
English
Article Type
Article; Proceedings Paper
Keywords

LIPOSOME-DNA COMPLEXES; DOUBLE-LAYER INTERACTIONS; MEMBRANE CHARGE-DENSITY; NUCLEIC ACID COMPLEXES; GENE DELIVERY; RIGID POLYELECTROLYTES; DYNAMIC INSTABILITY; POISSON-BOLTZMANN; BUNDLE FORMATION; BLOCK LIPOSOMES

Citation

ADVANCES IN COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE, v.232, pp.9 - 16

ISSN
0001-8686
DOI
10.1016/j.cis.2015.11.002
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/212491
Appears in Collection
BiS-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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