An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) can perform flexible operations even in complex underwater environments because of its autonomy. Localization is one of the key components of this autonomous navigation. Because the inertial navigation system of an AUV suffers from drift, observing fixed objects in an inertial reference system can enhance the localization performance. In this paper, we propose a method of AUV localization using visual measurements of underwater structures. A camera measurement model that emulates the camera’s observations of underwater structures is designed in a particle filtering framework. Then, the particle weight is updated based on the extracted visual information of the underwater structures. The proposed method is validated based on the results of experiments performed in a structured basin environment.