The anomalous wave propagation imaging (AWPI) method is proposed for the laser ultrasonic propagation imaging system using a Q-switched laser and a laser mirror scanner to highlight the anomalies in complex structures. The AWPI algorithm was developed based on the observation that the waves from two adjacent scanning points are very similar, and that the propagation direction of the incident wave is different from that of the anomalous wave caused by structural anomalies including damage. The structural anomaly is highlighted by suppressing the incident waves and exaggerating the anomalous wave through adjacent waves subtraction after arrival time and amplitude matching. The variable time window amplitude mapping (VTWAM) method was also developed, based on the difference in arrival time between the residual incident wave and anomalous waves. The VTWAM method enhances anomaly visualization and sizing, notably for composite damages, by mapping the amplitudes of the confining wave within the damage. Our results showed that the AWPI increased the signal-to-noise ratio of a back-surface hole damage in a steel plate by 13.76 dB, while in another inspection of a composite wing with two impact damages, the AWPI results enhanced by the VTWAM compared favorably with the results of the immersion ultrasonic C-scan. The AWPI and VTWAM adopt implicit spatial referencing wherein all necessary data can be obtained through a single-time scan, therefore circumvent the disadvantages of conventional temporal baseline referencing.