Epigenetics: An emerging player in gastric cancer

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Cancers, like other diseases, arise from gene mutations and/or altered gene expression, which eventually cause dysregulation of numerous proteins and noncoding RNAs. Changes in gene expression, i.e., upregulation of oncogenes and/or downregulation of tumor suppressor genes, can be generated not only by genetic and environmental factors but also by epigenetic factors, which are inheritable but nongenetic modifications of cellular chromosome components. Identification of the factors that contribute to individual cancers is a prerequisite to a full understanding of cancer mechanisms and the development of customized cancer therapies. The search for genetic and environmental factors has a long history in cancer research, but epigenetic factors only recently began to be associated with cancer formation, progression, and metastasis. Epigenetic alterations of chromatin include DNA methylation and histone modifications, which can affect gene-expression profiles. Recent studies have revealed diverse mechanisms by which chromatin modifiers, including writers, erasers and readers of the aforementioned modifications, contribute to the formation and progression of cancer. Furthermore, functional RNAs, such as microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs, have also been identified as key players in these processes. This review highlights recent findings concerning the epigenetic alterations associated with cancers, especially gastric cancer.
Publisher
BAISHIDENG PUBLISHING GROUP INC
Issue Date
2014-06
Language
English
Article Type
Article
Keywords

TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR GENE; EPITHELIAL-MESENCHYMAL TRANSITION; HISTONE H3K27 DEMETHYLASE; ABERRANT DNA METHYLATION; NONCODING RNA; PROSTATE-CANCER; CELL-GROWTH; PROMOTER HYPERMETHYLATION; DOWN-REGULATION; COLORECTAL CANCERS

Citation

WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY, v.20, no.21, pp.6433 - 6447

ISSN
1007-9327
DOI
10.3748/wjg.v20.i21.6433
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/189986
Appears in Collection
BS-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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2014-06-07 Epigenetics - an emerging player in gastric cancer (World J Gastroenterol 20 6433-47).pdf(803.22 kB)Download
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