This study presents a laser ultrasonic imaging and damage detection technique that creates images of ultrasonic waves propagating on a rotating structure and identifies damage. Laser ultrasonics is attractive for nondestructive testing mainly because of two reasons: (1) ultrasonic waves can be generated and/or measured in a noncontact manner and (2) even a small defect can be detected when laser ultrasonic scanning produces ultrasonic images with high spatial resolution. However, when it comes to a moving target, it becomes challenging to create reliable ultrasonic images. In this study, ultrasonic wave propagation images are obtained from a rotating blade using a pulse laser beam for ultrasonic generation, a galvanometer for laser scanning, and an embedded piezoelectric sensor for ultrasonic measurement. To properly estimate the laser excitation points during the scanning process rather than to precisely control the excitation points, a simple but rather effective localization technique is developed so that ultrasonic images can be constructed even from a moving target. Once the ultrasonic wave propagation images are created, damage on the target structure is visualized using a specially designed standing wave filter.