Anisotropic nanostructures with precise orientations or sharp corners display unique properties that may be useful in a variety of applications; however, precise control over the anisotropy of geometric features, using a simple and reproducible large-area fabrication technique, remains a challenge. Here, we report the fabrication of highly uniform polymeric and metallic nanostructure arrays prepared using prism holographic lithography (HL) in such a way that the isotropy that can be readily and continuously tuned. The prism position on the sample stage was laterally translated to vary the relative intensities of the four split beams, thereby tuning the isotropy of the resulting polymer nanostructures through the following shapes: circular nanoholes, elliptical nanoholes, and zigzag-shaped nanoarrays. Corresponding large-area, defect-free anisotropic metallic nanostructures could then be fabricated using an HL-featured porous polymer structure as a milling mask. Removal of the polymer mask left zigzag-shaped metallic nanostructure arrays in which nanogaps separated adjacent sharp edges. These structures displayed two distinct optical properties, depending on the direction along which the excitation beam was polarized (longitudinal and transverse modes) incident on the array. Furthermore, bidirectional anisotropic wetting was observed on the anisotropic polymer nanowall array surface.