This paper presents a direct workflow simulation method with which the future enactment service processes of a BPM system can be simulated directly (i.e., without a model conversion). The proposed method may easily be implemented on a commercial BPM system by plugging in a couple of software modules (no internal modification of the BPM system is required). Previous researches on workflow simulation relied mostly on conversion methods in which process definition models (PDMs) are converted to simulation models and the simulation is performed by a separate simulator. More recently, a direct workflow simulation method based on the concept of listener was proposed. However, with the listener approach, (1) some internal modification of the BPM system is required, (2) PDMs have to be modified slightly, and (3) reliable simulation is not guaranteed. The direct workflow simulation approach proposed in this paper, which we call the mediator approach, is free of these shortcomings. Moreover, the mediator approach is suitable for workflow simulation involving multiple BPM systems. In a 'direct' workflow simulation, (1) the work-list handler of each participant is replaced by a participant simulator, (2) simulation is carried out by the workflow engine of the BPM system, and (3) a software module called synchronization manager (mediator or listener) handles time synchronization during simulation. In this paper, the architecture and detailed logic of the mediator are described as DEVS models. The behaviors of participant simulators are also described as DEVS models. The proposed workflow simulation method has been implemented on a commercial BPM system as well as on an academic BPM system, and an illustrative workflow simulation example is provided. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.