A compact and two-dimensional atomic force microscope (AFM) using an orthogonal sample scanner, a calibrated homodyne laser interferometer and a commercial AFM head was developed for use in the nano-metrology field. The x and y position of the sample with respect to the tip are acquired by using the laser interferometer in the open-loop state, when each z data point of the AFM head is taken. The sample scanner, which has a motion amplifying mechanism was designed to move a sample up to 100 mu m x 100 mu m in orthogonal way, which means less crosstalk between axes. Moreover, the rotational errors between axes are measured to ensure the accuracy of the calibrated AFM within the full scanning range. The conventional homodyne laser interferometer was used to measure the x and y displacements of the sample and compensated via an X-ray interferometer to reduce the nonlinearity of the optical interferometer. The repeatability of the calibrated AFM was measured to sub-nanometers within a few hundred nanometers scanning range. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.