Economic and reliable online health monitoring strategies are very essential for safe operation of civil, mechanical and aerospace structures. This study presents online structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques using wireless impedance sensor nodes equipped with both functions of structural damage identification and sensor self-diagnosis. The wireless impedance sensor node incorporating a miniaturized impedance measuring chip, a microcontroller and radio-frequency (RF) telemetry is equipped with the capabilities for temperature sensing, multiplexing of several sensors, and local data analysis. The feasibility of the sensor node for structural damage identification is firstly investigated through a series of experimental studies inspecting loosened bolt damage and cut damage cases. Additionally, a temperature effects-free sensor self-diagnosis algorithm is embedded into the sensor node and its feasibility is examined from the experiments monitoring the integrity of each piezoelectric sensor on a wireless sensor network.