The in vitro response of the mouse fibroblast cell line 3T3 on the surface of ultrafine grained titanium [produced by a severe plastic deformation (SPD) process] has been studied in this work. SPD Ti showed much higher strength than the coarse grained Ti and equivalent to that of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Better cell proliferation was observed on SPD Ti compared to conventional Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. This could be attributed to the increased surface free energy by reduction in the grain size and possibly the presence of a large number of nano size grooves at the triple point junctions in SPD Ti sample. There was no significant difference in the results of cytotoxicity tests of fine and coarse grained materials.