A yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, short rod-shaped, non-motile and non-spore-forming bacterial strain, designated HU1-AH51(T), was isolated from freshwater sediment and was characterized using a polyphasic approach, in order to determine its taxonomic position. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain HU1-AH51(T) was shown to belong to the genus Novosphingobium, showing the highest level of sequence similarity with respect to Novosphingobium resinovorum NCIMB 8767(T) (96.0%), Novosphingobium naphthalenivorans TUT562(T) (96.0%) and Novosphingobium panipatense SM16(T) (96.0%). Strain HU1-AH51(T) had a genomic DNA G+C content of 62.6 mol% and Q-10 as the predominant respiratory quinone. Furthermore, the major polyamine component (spermidine) in the cytoplasm and the presence of sphingoglycolipids suggested that strain HU1-AH51(T) belongs to the family Sphingomonadaceae. On the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain HU1-AH51(T) represents a novel species of the genus Novosphingobium, for which the name Novosphingobium sediminicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HU1-AH51(T) (=LMG 24320(T) =KCTC 22311(T)).